IC-SP-06027 R1




Hitachi Single Chip Inverter IC
      Application Guide


                      (Applicable models)

                          VSP-input type              6-input type
                             ECN30105                  ECN30611
    For ≅ AC115V
                             ECN30107
                             ECN30204                  ECN30601
    For ≅ AC230V             ECN30206                  ECN30603
                             ECN30207                  ECN30604




                         Development Department
                           Power Device Division
     Hitachi, Ltd., Power Systems, Power & Industrial System Division

IC-SP-06027 R1 Precautions for Safe Use and Notices If semiconductor devices are handled inappropriate manner, failures may result. For this reason, be sure to read this “Application Guide” before use. ! This mark indicates an item about which caution is required. This mark indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, ! CAUTION if not avoided, may result in minor or moderate injury and damage to property. ! CAUTION (1) Regardless of changes in external conditions during use “absolute maximum ratings” should never be exceed in designing electronic circuits that employ semiconductors. In the case of pulse use, furthermore,″safe operating area(SOA)”precautions should be observed. (2) Semiconductor devices may experience failures due to accident or unexpected surge voltages. Accordingly, adopt safe design features, such as redundancy or prevention of erroneous action, to avoid extensive damage in the event of a failure. (3) In cases where extremely high reliability is required (such as use in nuclear power control, aerospace and aviation, traffic equipment, life-support-related medical equipment, fuel control equipment and various kinds of safety equipment), safety should be ensured by using semiconductor devices that feature assured safety or by means of user’s fail-safe precautions or other arrangement. Or consult Hitachi’s sales department staff. (If a semiconductor device fails, there may be cases in which the semiconductor device, wiring or wiring pattern will emit smoke or cause a fire or in which the semiconductor device will burst) NOTICES 1. This Application Guide contains the specifications, characteristics(in figures and tables), dimensions and handling notes concerning power semiconductor products (hereinafter called “products”) to aid in the selection of suitable products. 2. The specifications and dimensions, etc. stated in this Application Guide are subject to change without prior notice to improve products characteristics. Before ordering, purchasers are advised to contact Hitachi’s sales department for the latest version of this Application Guide and specifications. 3. In no event shall Hitachi be liable for any damage that may result from an accident or any other cause during operation of the user’s units according to this Application Guide. Hitachi assumes to responsibility for any intellectual property claims or any other problems that may result from applications of information, products or circuits described in this Application Guide. 4. In no event shall Hitachi be liable for any failure in a semiconductor device or any secondary damage resulting from use at a value exceeding the absolute maximum rating. 5. No license is granted by this Application Guide under any patents or other rights of any third party or Hitachi, Ltd. 6. This Application Guide may not be reproduced or duplicated, in any form, in whole or in part, without the expressed written permission of Hitachi, Ltd. 7. The products (technologies) described in this Application Guide are not to be provided to any party whose purpose in their application will hinder maintenance of international peace and safety nor are they to be applied to that purpose by their direct purchasers or any third party. When exporting these products (technologies), the necessary procedures are to be taken in accordance with related laws and regulations.

IC-SP-06027 R1 Hitachi offers even better products by taking advantage of our long years of experiences in the market. Hitachi helps you save even more energy under our policy of "quality first." Advanced Hitachi Single-chip Inverter ICs Much easy to use It becomes easy to design the system power supply by the power supply up/down sequence free design of IC. *1). Much reduce the effects on the environment It conforms to lead (Pb) free phase category "Phase 3A" *4) of “electronic equipment” of JEITA *3) ETR-7021 (issue in June, 2004)". Much strong noise-immunity A built-in cancellation circuit designed to inhibit noises of no more than about 1 μs, reduces output malfunctions induced by noises in the input signal line *2). *1) This applies to ECN30107s, ECN30611s, ECN30206s, ECN30207s, ECN30603s and ECN30604s. *2) This applies to ECN30204s, ECN30206s, ECN30207s, ECN30601s, ECN30603s and ECN30604s *3) JEITA: Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association *4) Phase 3A: The entire parts must be lead-free, include the internal connection and the part materials, that exclude exemption of EU RoHS *5) directive. *5) EU RoHS: DIRECTIVE 2002/95/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 27 January 2003 on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances in electrical and electronic equipment

IC-SP-06027 R1 ≪Contents≫ 1. Overview 1-1. Dielectric isolation (DI) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 1-2. Single-chip Inverter ICs ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 1-3. Composition of an inverter IC ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2 1-4. Motor drive system ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3 1-5. Block diagram of inverter ICs ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3 2. Content of specification ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 4 3. Package 3-1. Model name ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 5 3-2. Production lot number --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 3-3. Marking ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 5 3-4. Package outline ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6 4. Pins 4-1. Pin arrangement ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8 4-2. Functions of the pins ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9 5. Functions and operational precautions 5-1. Protection function ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 13 (1) Detection of VCC under voltage (2) Current limitation (a) Operation description (b) How to set up (c) Noises of the RS pin (d) Precautions on wiring (e) Motor lock (3) Protection against short circuit 5-2. Charge pump circuit ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16 (1) Description of operation 5-3. Power supply sequence ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 17 5-4. VB power supply ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 18 5-5. Operation of the output IGBT of the VSP-input type --------------------------------------------------- 19 (1) PWM operation (2) Output all-off function (a) Function description (b) Precautions 5-6. Internal Filter ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 20 5-7. Dead time -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 21 5-8. Calculation of power consumption ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 24 5-9. Derating ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 26 5-10. External components -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 27

IC-SP-06027 R1 6. Handling Instruction 6-1 Mounting ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 29 (1) Insulation between pins (2) Connection of tabs (3) Soldering conditions 6-2 Antistatic measures ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 30 7. Quality 7-1. Quality tests ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 30 7-2. QC Control Flow ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 31 8. Inverter IC Handling Note 8-1. Electrical static destruction of VSP pin caused by external surge -------------------------------- 32 8-2. Electrical static destruction of FG pin caused by external surge --------------------------------- 32 8-3. IC destruction by external surge inputted to VS and VCC line (1) -------------------------------- 33 8-4. IC destruction by external surge inputted to VS and VCC line (2) -------------------------------- 33 8-5. IC destruction by external surge inputted to VS and VCC line (3) -------------------------------- 33 8-6. IC destruction by line noise put into VCC (1) ------------------------------------------------------------- 34 8-7. IC destruction by line noise put into VCC (2) ------------------------------------------------------------- 34 8-8. IC destruction by relay noise of inspection machine -------------------------------------------------- 35 8-9. Motor failure (missing phase output) ------------------------------------------------------------------------ 35

IC-SP-06027 R1 1. Overview 1-1. Dielectric isolation (DI) Hitachi Intelligent Power IC A logical device and a power-switching device can be integrated in a single chip. No mutual interference occurs, not only between devices but also between device and board. The Hitachi high-voltage monolithic IC is an intelligent power IC, developed based on a unique dielectric isolation technology (DI). It is structured that there be no latch-up between devices and between device and board, and that an IC can be made so a high-dielectric-strength, large-current output circuit is mixed with a logical circuit. The ICs can be made smaller than conventional discrete boards and hybrid ICs. Latch-up-free IC offers wider range of applications. The Hitachi high-voltage monolithic IC developed with dielectric isolation technology are such that the devices are isolated with SiO2 layers in between, unlike P-N junction isolation. In consequence, it can remain latched-up free even under high-temperature, large-current, high-noise, and other severe conditions. This technology also enables them to be extremely flexible in circuit designing and thus to meet more customer requirement. Aluminum wire SiO2 Dielectric isolation N P Single crystal silicon N N Poly silicon SiO2 (Insulator separation layer) Aluminum wire P-N junction isolation SiO2 N P+ P P+ N N N Single crystal silicon P type silicon Depletion layer (Insulator separation layer) Fig. 1-1. Dielectric isolation and P-N junction isolation -1-

IC-SP-06027 R1 1-2. Single-chip Inverter ICs Hitachi Single-chip Inverter ICs are monolithic ICs integrating various constituent devices and circuits required for inverter control on a single chip with dielectric isolation technology. They are for driving motors, best suited for controlling small three-phase brushless DC motors. The advantage of downsizing by the use of a single-chip structure can be used to reduce the control board in size, which facilitates the incorporate of such ICs in motors. (Can be incorporated in motors.) IGBT Driver Logic Level Shift IGBT Control Circuit (Single-chip inverter IC) Fig. 1-2. Single-chip inverter IC 1-3. Composition of an inverter IC An inverter is a device that converts DC currents into AC. It can be used to drive motors for efficient variable-speed control. Fig. 1-3 shows the basic configuration of an inverter IC required for that purpose. To drive the three-phase motor with an inverter, six IGBTs and free wheel diodes are used as output stages. The IC consists of an IGBT driving power circuit, level shift circuit, a logic circuit and other components for IGBT control. Hitachi Inverter ICs can directly receive high voltage supplied from rectifying commercial AC power, because they have high dielectric strength. This obviates the need of a step-down circuit, thus inhibiting efficiency cuts induced by voltage conversion. High voltage 3-phase DCBLM Driver IC Output Power device: IGBTs U V W Charge pump Rectifying/smoothing circuit Driver circuit Protection circuit Motor AC115V 15V Level shift circuit Logic circuit μ-Processor Position detection Fig.1-3. Basic configuration of an inverter IC -2-

IC-SP-06027 R1 1-4. Motor drive system Three-phase inverters generally fall into two categories according to the method of commutation of the six output-stage devices: 120-degree energization and 180-degree energization. The method of 120-degree energization is such that the device on the top arm and that on the bottom arm are controlled to set the energization period between phases to 120 degrees, thus transferring the current from phase U to V to W, thus driving the motor. Hitachi Single-chip Inverter ICs (VSP-input series) are based on 120-degree energization and receive position signals from hall ICs and VSP signals that constitute speed instructions, thus conducting PWM control by the chopping action of the lower arm. For uses of 180-degree energization, a six-input series are provided where six output stage devices can be controlled by each input signal. 1-5. Block Diagram of Inverter IC Fig. 1-4 shows a block diagram of ECN30206 for receiving 230V AC, as an example of inverter IC. Its main function is to receive input signals from the three phases of hall ICs of the brushless DC motor, turns on and off the particular IGBTs with the three-phase distribution circuit, and to drive the motor. Other components include a charge pump circuit as a power self-supply circuit, a triangular wave oscillator and a comparator-based PWM generation circuit as rpm control circuits, an over current detection circuit which provides a current trip function at motor startup, and an under voltage detection circuit that detects power drops in the drive circuit and turns off the output. RU D2 D1 VS VCC(15V) RV C2 + RW + - C1 C0 - CB HU HV HW C+ C- CL VS1 VS2 VCC VB VB supply VB Clock Charge Pump VCC FG FG Top Arm Hall ICs DM Motor Rotating Driver MU MicroController Direction Filter Circuit 3-Phase MV VSP PWM Comparator + Distributor MW CMP All off Bottom + arm off Bottom Arm CMP Driver Motor VCC SAW wave Over Current Sense Generator Clock LVSD + Vref CR VTR GL RS GH1 GH2 Note : Inside of bold line RTR shows ECN30206 CTR RS Fig.1-4. Block diagram of ECN30206 -3-

IC-SP-06027 R1 2. Content of specifications The following items have been described in the specifications. (1) Maximum Ratings • It describes direct conditions(electric, thermal use conditions) of leading to IC destruction and so on. And the safety operating range with operating conditions is shown by minimum or maximum value. • Each item is an independent item. Also, these items show the ratings value of not exceeding any use conditions. The maximum rating and other characteristics are mutually related, and not permitted at the same time. (2) Electrical Characteristics • It provides for an electric characteristic item that shows the function of IC, and describes minimum, standard, and maximum. (3) Function and Operation • It describes Truth Table, Time Chart, Protection Function and so on. (4) Standard application • It describes external parts to operate IC. (5) Pin Assignments and Pin Definitions • It describes pin assignments, pin names and pin definitions. (6) Important notice Precautions • It describes notes of the static electricity, the maximum rating, handling and so on. (7) Appendix and Reference data • It describes SOA and Deratings. -4-

IC-SP-06027 R1 3. Package 3-1. Model name ECN 30206 SP Package type (SP, SPV, SPR) Series name Hitachi High-voltage IC 3-2. Production lot number 5 E 12 F Control number It shows by two digits or less (alphabetical character). Lead (Pb) Free: Last digit is Marked as “F” Quality control number. It shows by one digit or two digits. (Numerals from 1 to 9, alphabetical character (except O and I) or space is used.) Assembled month as shown in below January, A; February, B; March, C; April, D; May, E; June, K; July, L; August, M; September, N; October, X; November, Y; and December, Z Least significant digit of Assembled year (A.D.) 3-3. Marking Model name Package Type: SP, SPV JA PAN Index pin Hitachi mark Production lot number Model name (only numbers*) Package Type: SPR Production lot number * e.g. ECN30206SPR is represented as “30206”. Fig. 3-1. Marking diagram -5-

IC-SP-06027 R1 3-4. Package Outline Table 3-1(1). Package Dimensions (unit: mm) Package Type Package Dimensions SP (SP-23TA) 1 SPV (SP-23TB) 1 -6-

IC-SP-06027 R1 Table 3-1(2). Package Dimensions (unit: mm) Package Type Package Dimensions SPR (SP-23TR) 1 23 -7-

IC-SP-06027 R1 4. Pins 4-1. Pin assignments Table 4-1. Assignment table of pins Applicable ECN30102 ECN30204 ECN30611 Model ECN30105 ECN30206 ECN30601 ECN30107 ECN30603 Pin # ECN30207 ECN30604 1 VS2 VS2 VS2 2 MW MW MW 3 NC note1 NC note1 NC note1 4 GH2 GH2 GH2 5 VCC VCC VCC 6 GL GL GL 7 C+ C+ C+ 8 C- C- C- 9 CL CL CL 10 CB CB CB 11 CTR CTR CTR 12 VTR VTR VTR 13 VSP VSP WB 14 FG FG VB 15 NC note1 DM UB 16 HW HW RS 17 HV HV WT 18 HU HU VT 19 RS RS UT 20 GH1 GH1 GH1 21 MU MU MU 22 VS1 VS1 VS1 23 MV MV MV Note 1: NC represents an unconnected pin. It is not connected to an internal chip. -8-

IC-SP-06027 R1 4-2. Functions of the pins Table 4-2. List of pins and their functions (pins common to all models) No. Pin Item Functions and Precautions Related items Remarks 1 VCC Control power supply pin • Powers the drive circuits for the top • 5-1. (1) VCC under and bottom arms, the charge pump voltage Detection circuit, the built-in VB supply circuit, • 5-3. Power supply and others. sequence • Determine the capacity of the power • 8-3 to 8-7 supply for VCC allowing a margin by IC destruction by external adding the standby current Icc and the surge or line noise current taken out of CB pin. 2 VS1 IGBT power pin • Connected to the collector of the top • 5-3. Power supply High voltage VS2 arm IGBT. sequence pin • Connect pins VS1 and VS2 close to • 8-3 to 8-5 the IC pin. If either pin is open, the ICIC destruction by external may get destroyed. surge 3 CB Output pin of the build-in • Outputs a voltage (typ 7.5V) • 5-4. VB power supply VB supply generated in the build-in VB power supply. • Provides power from the VB power supply to the input, three-phase distribution, FG, internal clock, over current detection, and other circuits. • Connect a capacitor C0 to prevent oscillation to the CB pin. Capacitor with capacity of 0.22μF ±20% is recommended 4 C+ Top arm drive circuit • Powers the drive circuit for the top • 5-2. Charge pump circuit High voltage C- power pin arm. pin CL Charge pump circuit pin • Connect external components (capacitor and diode). C+ C- VS1 VS2 Top arm driver MU CL MV MW Internal clock GL GH1 GH2 Equivalent Circuit 5 GL Control ground pin • It is the ground pin for VCC and VB power lines. 6 GH1 IGBT Emitter pin • Connected to the emitter of the bottom • 5-1. (2) Current limitation GH2 arm IGBT. • Connected to a shunt resistor Rs to detect over currents. • Connect the GH1 and GH2 near the IC pin. If either pin is open, the IC may get destroyed. -9-

IC-SP-06027 R1 Table 4-2. List of pins and their functions (pins common to all models) <Continued> No. Pin Item Functions and Precautions Related items Remarks 7 CR PWM frequency • Externally connected resistors and • 5-5. (1) PWM operation VTR setting pin capacitors are used to determine the (VSP-input type) frequency of the PWM (internal clock). Clock frequency • Frequencies are roughly determined by setting pin the following equation: (6-input type) f ≅ 0.494/(C X R) (Hz) note 1) Input resistor value typ.50Ω • typ.300Ω VTR VB ECN30102 ECN30107 ECN30206 CR + C ECN30207 Input - (Internal clock) ECN30611 resistor ECN30603 (note 1) VB L ECN30604 VSAWH(typ. 5.4V) • typ.150Ω Switch selection by VSAWL(typ. 2.1V) ECN30105 comparator output H ECN30204 ECN30601 Equivalent Circuit 8 MU Inverter output pin • It is an output of a three-phase bridge High-voltage MV consisting of six IGBTs and free wheel pin MW diodes. 9 RS Input pin for over • Monitors the voltage of the Rs shunt • 5-1. (2) Current limitation current detection resistor and detects its over current signals status. note 1) Input resistor value • typ.300Ω typ. VB ECN30102 200kΩ typ. 220kΩ ECN30107 - ECN30206 RS S ECN30207 Input typ. + Latch R ECN30611 resistor 5pF Vref ECN30603 (note 1) ECN30604 Interlock clock trigger • typ.150Ω ECN30105 Equivalent Circuit ECN30204 ECN30601 - 10 -

IC-SP-06027 R1 Table 4-3. List of pins and their functions (pin different according to model) Applicable No. Pin Item models Functions and Precautions Related items VSP Speed ECN30102 • Input a speed instruction signal to generate • 5-3. Power supply sequence instruction ECN30105 a PWM signal. • 5-5. Operation of the output input pin ECN30107 • Entering an all-off operating voltage of the IGBT of the VSP input type ECN30204 VSP terminal (typ. 1.23V) turns off all • 8-1. Electrical static destruction of ECN30206 IGBTs. VSP pin caused by external ECN30207 • If a noise is detected, install a resistor surge and/or capacitor. Data Sheet • 4.2 Input terminals note 1) Input resistor value VB Input resistor • typ. 300Ω (note 1) Comparator ECN30102 VSP - ECN30107 + ECN30206 typ. 200kΩ ECN30207 • typ. 150Ω From CR pin ECN30105 Equivalent Circuit ECN30204 2 HU Hall signal ECN30102 • Input a hall IC signal. Based on that signal, Data Sheet HV input pin ECN30105 the system controls the phase switchover • 3.1. Truth table HW ECN30107 of the output IGBT. • 4.2. Input Pins ECN30204 • If a noise is detected, install a capacitor. ECN30206 • The maximum input voltage is VB+0.5V. ECN30207 The output voltage of hall IC must not exceed the maximum input voltage. note 1) Input resistor value VB • typ. 300Ω typ. ECN30102 HU 200kΩ ECN30107 HV ECN30206 HW Input ECN30207 resistor (note 1) • typ. 150Ω ECN30105 ECN30204 Equivalent Circuit 3 FG Motor ECN30102 • Output pulses according to the input • 8-2. Electrical static destruction of rotation ECN30105 signals of the HU, HV and HW. FG pin caused by external speed ECN30107 • Motor rotation speed can be monitored by surge monitoring measuring the frequency of output pulse. pin ECN30204 • Output pulses according to the input Data Sheet ECN30206 signals of the HU, HV and HW. • 3.2 Time chart ECN30207 • Motor rotation speed can be monitored by measuring the frequency of output pulse. • Connect an external circuit such as a pull-up resistor of around 5kΩ to 10kΩ to VCC or CB pin. CMOS output type Open drain output type VB Applicable models VCC Applicable models ECN30102 ECN30204 ECN30105 ECN30206 FG ECN30107 FG ECN30207 Equivalent Circuit Equivalent Circuit - 11 -

IC-SP-06027 R1 Table 4-3. List of pins and their functions (pins common to all models) <Continued> No. Applicable Pin Item models Functions and Precautions Related items 4 DM Direction ECN30204 • High or Low level output according to the of motor ECN30206 input signal of the HU, HV and HW. rotation • Direction of motor rotation can be detected detecting by measuring output voltage. pin • Connect an external circuit such as a pull-up resistor of around 5kΩ to 10kΩ to VCC or CB pin. • Direction of motor rotation relates to the DM output, as shown below ; Direction of DM output motor rotation U --> V --> W L U --> W --> V H VCC DM Equivalent Circuit 5 UT Control ECN30611 • Input control signals of each arm. • 5-3. Power supply sequence VT input pin ECN30601 • In each input, input the High level turns on • 5-7. Dead time WT of each ECN30603 the output IGBT. The UT, VT, and WT UB arm ECN30604 correspond to the top arm output IGBT. Data sheet VB • The UB, VB, and WB corrrespond to the • 4.2. Input Pins WB bottom arm output IGBT. • The input voltage is 5V CMOS or TTL logic level compatible. • If a noise is detected, install a resistor and/or capacitor. • The maximum input voltage is VB+0.5V. note 1) Input resistor value VB • typ. 300Ω UT VT Input resistor ECN30611 WT (note 1) ECN30603 ECN30604 UB VB typ. • typ. 150Ω WB 200kΩ ECN30601 Equivalent Circuit - 12 -

IC-SP-06027 R1 5. Functions and operational precautions 5-1. Protection function (1) Detection of VCC under voltage (LVSD operation) • When the VCC voltage goes below the LVSD operating voltage (LVSDON), the output IGBTs of the top and bottom arms are all turned off regardless of the input signal. • This function has hysteresis (Vrh). When the VCC voltage goes up again, the system goes back to a state where the ouput IGBT operates according to the input signal at a level equal to or exceeding the LVSD recovery voltage (LVSDOFF). LVSD operation LVSD recovery VCC voltage LVSD recovery voltage (LVSDOFF) LVSD hysteresis (Vrh) LVSD operation voltage (LVSDON) Operation according All off regardless of the Operation according to to the input signal input signal the input signal IGBT operation (LVSD operation status) Fig. 5-1. Timing chart for detection of VCC under voltage (LVSD operation) (2) Current limitation (a) Operation description • The system monitors the current flowing through the shunt resistance Rs at the RS pin (see Fig. 5-2). When the reference voltage for current limitation (Vref = typ. 0.5V) is exceeded, the IGBT of the bottom arm is turned off. • Reset after current limitation is performed in each cycle of the internal clock signal (VTR pin voltage). (See Fig.5-3.) VS VS1 VS2 MU MV MW - Motor + Vref RS GH1 GH2 RS Is Fig. 5-2. Current of shunt resistance (typical) - 13 -

IC-SP-06027 R1 Reset signal VTR pin voltage Over current detected Delay Current limit setting IO Delay Power Supply current IS Lower arm IGBT operation ON OFF ON Current limitation performed IGBT off Current limitation reset Fig. 5-3. Timing chart for current limitation (b) How to set up • The current limitation setting IO is calculated as follows ; IO = Vref / Rs where Vref: Standard voltage for current limitation Rs: Shunt resistor • In setting a current limit, you should allow for Vref variance, Rs resistance variance, and the delay between the time the over current limitation is detected and the time the IGBT is turned off. • This function is not effective for currents that do not flow forward through the shunt resistor, such as reflux current and power regenerative current (see Figs. 5-4 and 5-5). In practice, users are requested to observe and check the output currents (the coil currents of the motor) of the IC. - 14 -

IC-SP-06027 R1 VS VS VS1 VS2 VS1 VS2 MU MU MV MV MW MW Motor Motor RS GH1 GH2 RS GH1 GH2 RS RS Fig. 5-4. Example to Reflux current Fig. 5-5. Example to Power regenerative current (c) Noises of the RS pin • The RS pin contains a filter having a time constant of about 1μs. • If the system malfunctions due to a noise, an effective solution is to add a filter externally. However, beware that the external filter increases the delay time before the IGBT turns off. typ. 200kΩ VB typ. 220kΩ Comparator GH1, Rf GH2 - S Rs Cf RS Input resistor typ. 5pF + Latch (Note) R Vref External filter (Inside the IC) Interlock clock trigger Note) See the section "RS" of Pin Name in Table 4.2 for the input resistor value. Fig. 5-6. Example to add external filter (d) Precautions on wiring • Make the wiring of the shunt resistor Rs as short as possible. The GH1 and GH2 are connected to the IGBT emitter. If the wiring has a high resistance or inductance component, the emitter potential of the IGBT changes, perhaps resulting in the IGBT malfunctioning. • Connect the GH1 and GH2 pins near the pin. If the resistance components of the wiring is poor balanced between the GH1 and GH2 pins and the shunt resistor Rs, the current limit levels in each phase may not be equal. (e) Motor lock • This IC does not contain a protection function against motor lock. • If the motor locks, the phase where the output IGBT turns on is fixed, resulting in a constant current-limited state. This produces a major loss, which results in IC temperature increase and IC gets destroyed. (3) Protection against short-circuit • This IC does not contain a protection function against short-circuits (such as load short-circuit, earth fault, and short-circuit between the top and bottom arms). • A short-circuit produces a large current exceeding the maximum rating in the IC. The IC may therefore get destroyed. - 15 -

IC-SP-06027 R1 5-2. Charge pump circuit (1) Description of operation • Fig. 5-7 shows a block diagram of a charge pump circuit. The SW1 and SW2 repeat turning on and off alternatively, synchronously with the internal clock. • When the SW1 is off and the SW2 is on, the CL pin has a potential of 0V. Through the passage (1), charge the capacitor C1. • Next, the SW1 is turned on and the SW2 is turned off, and the CL pin rises in potential to the VS level. Through the passage (2), the charge of the capacitor C1 is pumped up to the capacitor C2. • This operation is repeated with the frequency of the internal clock, and the charge is given to the capacitor C2. • The capacitor C2 constitutes a power supply for the drive circuit for the top arm. + - C2 C+ VS1,VS2 C- Vs (2) SW1 Top arm D2 Driver C1 + - CL MU, D1 (1) MV, MW Internal Vcc clock SW2 GH1,GH2 GL Fig. 5-7. Charge pump circuit - 16 -

IC-SP-06027 R1 5-3. Power supply sequence (1) Power supply sequence free type • ECN30107, ECN30611, ECN30207, ECN30604, ECN30206 (below 1A), ECN30603 (below 1A) (2) Power supply sequence setting type of the VSP-input type and 6-input type is described below. • ECN30102, ECN30105, ECN30204 : Refer to (3) (a) VSP-input type • ECN30601 : Refer to (3) (b) 6-input type (3) How to set Power supply sequence (a) VSP-input type • Recommended sequences are as follows: At power-up: VCC on --> VS on --> VSP on At power-down: VSP off --> VS off --> VCC off If any sequence is involved other than those specified above, please refer to Tables 5-1 and 5-2. • When the VSP is no higher than the VSAWL, the power sequence is free. • As for the sequences No. 2 and 5 in Table 5-1, if the VS line gets noisy before the VS is powered up after the VCC and VSP are applied, the ON signal of the upper arm IGBT is reset and the motor may not start up. In such a case, first reduce the VSP to a level no higher than the all-off operating voltage (Voff), then apply it. • In the case of No. 4 and 6 in Table 5-1 and No. 4 and 6 in Table 5-2, see "Current Derating for Power Sequence and Vcc Voltage" of the Product Specifications. Table 5-1 Power up sequence (VSP-input type) Table 5-2 Power down sequence (VSP-input type) Permit or Permit or No. (1) (2) (3) Inhibit No. (1) (2) (3) Inhibit 1 VCC VS VSP Permit 1 VSP VS VCC Permit 2 VCC VSP VS Permit 2 VS VSP VCC Permit 3 VS VCC VSP Permit 3 VSP VCC VS Permit 4 VS VSP VCC Inhibit 4 VCC VSP VS Inhibit 5 VSP VCC VS Permit 5 VS VCC VSP Permit 6 VSP VS VCC Inhibit 6 VCC VS VSP Inhibit (b) 6-input type • Recommended sequences are as follows ; At power-up: VCC on --> VS on --> "Control input" on At power-down: "Control input" off --> VS off --> VCC off For any sequence other than those specified above, see Tables 5-3 and 5-4. • The power sequence is free if the lower arm control inputs UB, VB, and WB are all low (L) and if the upper control inputs UT, VT, and WT are all low (L). • In the sequences No. 2 and 5 in Table 5-3, after the VCC and "control input" are applied, when a noise enters the VS line before VS power-up, the ON signal of the top arm IGBT can be reset and the motor may not start up. In such a case, the control inputs (UT, VT, and WT) for the top arm should be set to low, then power the system up again. • In the case of No. 4 and 6 in Table 5-3 and No. 4 and 6 in Table 5-4, see "Current Derating for power supply sequence and Vcc voltage" of the product specifications. Table 5-3 Power up sequence (6-input type) Table 5-4 Power down sequence (6-input type) Permit or Permit or No. (1) (2) (3) Inhibit No. (1) (2) (3) Inhibit 1 VCC VS Control Input Permit 1 Control Input VS VCC Permit 2 VCC Control Input VS Permit 2 VS Control Input VCC Permit 3 VS VCC Control Input Permit 3 Control Input VCC VS Permit 4 VS Control Input VCC Inhibit 4 VCC Control Input VS Inhibit 5 Control Input VCC VS Permit 5 VS VCC Control Input Permit 6 Control Input VS VCC Inhibit 6 VCC VS Control Input Inhibit - 17 -

IC-SP-06027 R1 5-4. VB power supply • The VB power (VB = typ. 7.5V) to be output to the CB pin is generated at the VCC power. The VB power is supplied to the IC internal circuits such as the triangular wave oscillation circuit, over current detection circuit and so on. • The VB power circuit constitutes a feedback circuit (see Fig. 5-8). To prevent oscillation, connect a capacitor C0 to the CB pin. • The recommended capacity for the C0 is 0.22μF ± 20%. If any value other than the recommended one is to be used, refer to the below precautions and determine a suitable capacity. <Precautions> • As shown in Fig. 5-9, the CB pin may be oscillated depending on the C0 capacity and the output current IB. • The larger the C0 capacity is, the more stable the VB power supply is. It is recommended, however not to set the capacity figure to an excessive level. As a guide, it should be 2μ to 3μF or less in the non-oscillated region. CB pin IB VCC pin Reference C0 External Voltage Internal circuit source circuit (Inside the IC) Fig. 5-8. Equivalent circuit for the VB power supply Specification: 25mA maximum 10 1 C0 (μF) 0.1 Oscillation 0.01 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Output current IB for VB power supply (mA) Fig.5-9. IB and C0 dependence of CB pin oscillation (reference data) - 18 -

IC-SP-06027 R1 5-5. Operation of the output IGBTs of the VSP-input type (Applicable models: ECN30102, ECN30105, ECN30107, ECN30204, ECN30206, ECN30207) (1) PWM operation • PWM signals are generated by comparing the VSP input voltage and triangular signal (CR pin voltage). • Chopping with PWM is conducted by the lower arm. (See Fig.5-10.) VSP input voltage > triangular signal; the lower arm IGBT on VSP input voltage < triangular signal; lower arm IGBT off • The PWM duty varies linearly between the bottom limit (VSAWL = typ. 2.1V) and the top limit (VSAWH = typ. 5.4V) of the triangular wave amplitude level. It becomes 0% at VSAWL, and 100% at VSAWH. VSAWH (typ. 5.4V) Triangular wave signal (CR pin voltage) VSP input voltage VSAWL (typ. 2.1V) Lower arm IGBT OFF ON OFF ON OFF ON OFF ON Motor coil current Power supply current IS Fig. 5-10. Timing chart of PWM operation (2) Output all-off function (a) Function description • When the input voltage of the VSP pin reaches or goes below the all-off operation voltage (Voff = typ 1.23V), this function turns off all the output IGBTs. The operation of the output IGBTs with regard to the VSP input voltage conforms to Table 5-5. Table 5-5. Operation of the output IGBTs with regard to VSP input voltage VSP input voltage Top arm IGBT Bottom arm IGBT 0V≦VSP<Voff ( typ. 1.23V) All off All off Voff (typ. 1.23V) ≦VSP<VSAWL (typ. 2.1V) As per hall signal input All off VSAWL (typ. 2.1V) ≦VSP As per hall signal input As per hall signal input (b) Precautions • When the output all-off function is activated while the motor is rotating, a regenerative current is generated in the VS power supply, in some cases resulting in the VS power voltage rise. Keep the VS pin voltage equal to or below the maximum rating. Attention is particularly needed, when the capacity between the VS and GND is small, where the voltage is more likely to rise. - 19 -

IC-SP-06027 R1 5-6. Internal Filter (Applicable models: ECN30204, ECN30206, ECN30207, ECN30601, ECN30603, ECN30604) • Internal Filter circuit is located before the Top and Bottom arm drivers (see Fig. 5-11.). This filter circuit removes the signal and the noise, that width is less than about 1μs (see Fig. 5-12.). Table 5-6. shows the effective pin of the internal filter circuit. • The noise is coupled on Vcc line: The internal filter becomes effective, when the VCC level is dropped by the noise, that is lower than LVSDON voltage and that width is about 1μs or less. RU D2 D1 VS VCC(15V) RV C2 + RW + - C1 C0 - CB HU HV HW C+ C- CL VS1 VS2 VCC VB VB supply VB Clock Charge Pump VCC FG FG Top Arm Hall ICs DM Motor Rotating Driver MU MicroController Direction Filter Circuit 3-Phase MV VSP PWM Comparator + Distributor MW CMP All off Bottom + arm off Bottom Arm CMP Driver Motor VCC SAW wave Over Current Sense Generator Clock LVSD + Vref CR VTR GL RS GH1 GH2 Note : Inside of bold line RTR shows ECN30206 CTR RS Fig.5-11. Block diagram of ECN30206 Input signal Output signal About 1 μsec or less Filter Circuit About 1 μsec or less Fig. 5-12. Operation of Internal Filter circuit Table 5-6 The effective pin of the internal filter circuit ECN30204 ECN30601 Model ECN30206 ECN30603 ECN30207 ECN30604 VCC* VCC* HU UT HV VT HW WT Effective Pin VSP UB CR VB RS WB RS *) Effective only to the output signal of the LVSD Detection circuit. - 20 -

IC-SP-06027 R1 5-7. Dead time (Applicable model: ECN30611, ECN30601, ECN30603, ECN30604) • Since this IC has an output of consisting of a totem pole of IGBTs, the IC may get destroyed when the top and bottom arm IGBTs of the same phase are turned on simultaneously. Therefore, allow for an internal delay of the IC and determine a dead time. • Here is how the dead time (TDI) of the input pin in the IC relates to the dead time (TDO) of the output pin. TDO = TDI - TdOFF + TdON --------------------- (1) where TdON: Turn-on delay TdOFF: Turn-off delay • To prevent the simultaneous turning-on of the top and bottom arms, the TDO should be set to more than zero. From Equation (1), TDI > TdOFF - TdON is the required setting condition of the dead time TDI. The worst case is when the TdOFF is maximum or TdON is minimum. • The TdON and TdOFF have temperature-dependency (see Fig. 5-14 to Fig. 5-15). These should be considered as well. • The above discussion does not allow for the effects of the populated board wiring and other elements. In practice, please monitor the power supply current and other factors, and check that the top and the bottom arm IGBTs of the same phase are not turned on simultaneously. UT input Dead time TDI > TdOFFT - TdONB UB input Dead time TDI > TdOFFB - TdONT Fig. 5-13. Typical dead time settings - 21 -

IC-SP-06027 R1 ECN306011 ECN30601 4.0 4.0 3.0 3.0 Turn on delay time TdONT(μs) TdONT(μs) (Top arm) 2.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 -30 0 30 60 90 120 150 -30 0 30 60 90 120 150 o Temperature Tj ( C) Temperature Tj (oC) 4.0 4.0 3.0 3.0 Turn on delay time TdONB(μs) TdONB(μs) (Bottom arm) 2.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 -30 0 30 60 90 120 150 -30 0 30 60 90 120 150 o o Temperature Tj ( C) Temperature Tj ( C) 4.0 4.0 3.0 3.0 TdOFFT(μs) TdOFFT(μs) Turn off delay time (Top arm) 2.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 -30 0 30 60 90 120 150 -30 0 30 60 90 120 150 Temperature Tj (oC) Temperature Tj (oC) 4.0 4.0 3.0 3.0 TdOFFB(μs) TdOFFB(μs) Turn off delay time (Bottom arm) 2.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 -30 0 30 60 90 120 150 -30 0 30 60 90 120 150 Temperature Tj (oC) o Temperature Tj ( C) Fig. 5-14 Temperature-dependency of TdON and TdOFF (1) - 22 -

IC-SP-06027 R1 ECN30603 ECN30604 4.0 4.0 3.0 3.0 Turn on delay time TdONT(μs) TdONT(μs) (Top arm) 2.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 -30 0 30 60 90 120 150 -30 0 30 60 90 120 150 o Temperature Tj ( C) Temperature Tj (oC) 4.0 4.0 3.0 3.0 Turn on delay time TdONB(μs) TdONB(μs) (Bottom arm) 2.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 -30 0 30 60 90 120 150 -30 0 30 60 90 120 150 o o Temperature Tj ( C) Temperature Tj ( C) 4.0 4.0 3.0 3.0 Turn off delay time TdOFFT(μs) TdOFFT(μs) (Top arm) 2.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 -30 0 30 60 90 120 150 -30 0 30 60 90 120 150 Temperature Tj (oC) Temperature Tj (oC) 4.0 4.0 3.0 3.0 Turn off delay time TdOFFB(μs) TdOFFB(μs) (Bottom arm) 2.0 2.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 -30 0 30 60 90 120 150 -30 0 30 60 90 120 150 Temperature Tj (oC) o Temperature Tj ( C) Fig. 5-15 Temperature-dependency of TdON and TdOFF (2) - 23 -

IC-SP-06027 R1 5-8. Calculation of power consumption • Here are simple formulae for calculating of power consumption generated in the VSP-input type and the six-input type. As for the constant required for calculation, contact our sales representative. (1) VSP-input type (Inverter controlled 120-degree commutation mode, bottom arm PWM chopping) (Applicable models: ECN30102, ECN30105, ECN30107, ECN30204, ECN30206, ECN30207) Total IC power consumption; P = PIGBT + PFWD + PSW + Pr + PIS + PICC (W) (1) Steady-state power dissipation of IGBTs PIGBT = IAVE x VONT + IAVE x VONB x D (W) (2) Steady-state power dissipation of Free Wheeling Diodes (FWDs) PFWD = IAVE x VFDT x (1 – D) (W) (3) Switching power dissipation of IGBTs PSW = (Eon + Eoff) x fPWM (W) (4) Recovery power dissipation of FWDs Pr = 1/4 x (IrrT x VS x trrT x fPWM) (W) (5) VS power supply consumption PIS = VS x IS (W) (6) VCC power supply consumption PICC = VCC x ICC (W) IAVE ; Average output current (see Fig. 5-16) (A) VONT ; Drop in the output voltage of the top arm IGBT @ I = IAVE (V) VONB ; Drop in the output voltage of the bottom arm IGBT @ I = IAVE (V) D ; PWM duty VFDT ; Forward voltage drop in the FWD of the upper arm @ I = IAVE (V) Eon ; Switching loss when the IGBT is turned on @ I = IAVE (J/pulse) Eoff ; Switching loss when the IGBT is turned off @ I = IAVE (J/pulse) fPWM ; PWM frequency (Hz) IrrT ; Recovery current of the FWD of the top arm (A) trrT ; Reverse recovery time of the FWD of the top arm (sec) VS ; VS power voltage (V) VCC ; VCC power voltage (V) IS ; Current consumption of the high-voltage circuit (A) ICC ; Current consumption of the control circuit (A) Note) FWD: Free Wheeling Diode Iave 0 t1 Motor coil current (one phase worth) Average output current Iave: average motor coil current during the period t1 Fig. 5-16. Current waveform of the motor coil (120-degree energization) - 24 -

IC-SP-06027 R1 (2) Six-input type (inverter controlled 180o sine wave commutation mode) (Applicable model: ECN30611, ECN30601, ECN30603, ECN30604) • The formula given below assumes the use of 180o sine wave commutation mode (all arms PWM chopping). Total IC power consumption; P = PIGBT + PFWD + PSW + Pr + PIS + PICC (W) (1) Steady-state power dissipation of IGBTs PIGBT = IP x VONTP x (1/8 + D/3π x cosθ) x 3 + IP x VONBP x (1/8 + D/3π x cosθ) x 3 (W) (2) Steady-state power dissipation of Free Wheeling Diodes (FWDs) PFWD = IP x VFDTP x (1/8 - D/3π x cosθ) x 3 + IP x VFDBP x (1/8 - D/3π x cosθ) x 3 (W) (3) Switching power dissipation of IGBT PSW = (EonP +EoffP) x fPWM/π x 6 (W) (4) Recovery power dissipation of FWDs Pr = 1/8 x (IrrT x VS x trrT x fPWM) x 3 + 1/8 x (IrrB x VS x trrB x fPWM) x 3 (W) (5) VS power supply consumption PIS = VS x IS (W) (6) VCC power supply consumption PICC = VCC x ICC (W) IP ; Peak current (see Fig.5-17) (A) VONTP ; Drop in the output voltage of the top arm IGBT @ I = IP (V) VONBP ; Drop in the output voltage of the bottom arm IGBT @ I = IP (V) (1 + D x sin t)/2 ; PWM duty power factor during the time t cosθ ; Power factor VFDTP ; Forward voltage drop in the FWD of the top arm @ I = IP (V) VFDBP ; Forward voltage drop in the FWD of the bottom arm @ I = IP (V) EonP ; Switching loss when the IGBT is turned on @ I = IP (J/pulse) EoffP ; Switching loss when the IGBT is turned off @ I = IP (J/pulse) fPWM ; PWM frequency (Hz) IrrT ; Recovery current of the FWD of the top arm (A) IrrB ; Recovery current of the FWD of the bottom arm (A) trrT ; Reverse recovery time of the FWD of the top arm (sec) trrB ; Reverse recovery time of the FWD of the bottom arm (sec) VS ; VS power voltage (V) VCC ; VCC power voltage (V) IS ; Current consumption of the high-voltage circuit (A) ICC ; Current consumption of the control circuit (A) Note) FWD: Free Wheeling Diode Ip 0 Motor coil current (one phase worth) Fig.5-17. Current waveform of the motor coil (Inverter controlled 180o sine wave commutation mode) - 25 -

IC-SP-06027 R1 (3) Calculation of junction temperature A junction temperature can be calculated by the following equation after measuring the temperature of the IC case(Tab). Tj = Tc + Rjc x P Tj : Junction Temperature (oC) Tc : IC case(Tab) Temperature (oC) (actual measurement) Rjc : Thermal resistance of between junction and IC case (Tab) (oC/W) P : Total IC power consumption (W) • Measuring method of Tc The thermo-couple is set in the tab of IC (heat sink) and temperature Tc of the IC case is measured. The temperature of Tc has the time dependency, please measure the temperature after it is saturated. 5-9. Derating How much to derate a unit from the maximum rating is an important issue to consider a reliable design. Items to be considered in the stage of system design include the derating of voltage, current, power, load, and electric stresses, along with the derating of temperature, humidity and other environmental conditions and vibration, impact and other mechanical stresses. Table 5-7 specifies the standard examples of derating to be considered a reliable designing. To consider these derating items in the stage of equipment design is desirable from the point of reliability securement. If any item is difficult to control within the standard, another means will be necessary, such as selecting a device having higher maximum ratings. Please consult our sales representative in advance. Table 5-7. Typical derating design standards Item Typical derating standards (example) o Junction temperature Tj 110 C maximum ECN30102, ECN30105 185V maximum ECN30107, ECN30611 VS power supply voltage ECN30204, ECN30206, ECN30207 450V maximum ECN30601, ECN30603, ECN30604 - 26 -

IC-SP-06027 R1 5-10. External components (1) Standard external components Table 5-8. External components Applicable models Parts Typical value Usage Remarks Common C0 0.22 μF +/-20% Filters the internal Stress voltage is VB (=8.2V) power supply (VB) Rs Sets Over-Current limit Please refer to the 4-1 (2) Note1 CTR 1800 pF +/-5% Sets PWM frequency Stress voltage is VB (=8.2V) Note2 RTR 22 kΩ +/-5% Sets PWM frequency Stress voltage is VB (=8.2V) Note2 RU, RV, RW 5.6 kΩ +/-5% Pull-up C1, C2 1.0 μF +/-20% For charge pump Stress voltage is Vcc Note3 Hall IC Asahi Kasei EMD For detecting the rotor For reference Note4 EW-632 or position equivalent ECN30204, ECN30206, D1, D2 Hitachi DFG1C6 For charge pump 600V, 1A, trr ≤ 100ns Note3 ECN30207, ECN30601, (Glass mold type) ECN30603, ECN30604 DFM1F6 (Resin mold type) or equivalent ECN30102, ECN30105 D1, D2 Hitachi DFG1C4 For charge pump 400V, 1A, trr ≤ 100ns Note3 ECN30107, ECN30611 (Glass mold type) DFM1F4 (Resin mold type) or equivalent RU D2 D1 VS VCC(15V) RV C2 + RW + - C1 C0 - CB HU HV HW C+ C- CL VS1 VS2 VCC VB VB supply VB Clock Charge Pump VCC FG FG Top Arm Hall ICs DM Motor Rotating Driver MU MicroController Direction Filter Circuit 3-Phase MV VSP PWM Comparator + Distributor MW CMP All off Bottom + arm off Bottom Arm CMP Driver Motor VCC SAW wave Over Current Sense Generator Clock LVSD + Vref CR VTR GL RS GH1 GH2 Note : Inside of bold line RTR shows ECN30206 CTR RS Fig.5-18. Block diagram of ECN30206 Table 5-8 and Fig. 5-18 are only for reference, select external components based on your system. Note 1: Please shorten the wiring between the resistor Rs and the Rs pin, and the wiring between the resistor Rs and the GH1/GH2 pins as much as possible. - 27 -

IC-SP-06027 R1 Note 2: The PWM frequency is approximated by the following equation: PWM Frequency (in Hertz) ≅ 0.494 / ( CTR x RTR ) Note: CTR is in Farads, RTR is in Ohms. • Please set the maximum frequency of PWM is 20KHz or less. • When the PWM frequency is set a high frequency, the switching loss is increased. And it produces an increase in temperature of IC. • Please confirm the increased IC temperature with an actual set, and use it in the range of derating curve. Note 3: Attention of part setting of charge pump circuit The following attention is necessary when used excluding the standard part. • When the voltage (Vcp) between C+ and C- is dropped, the gate voltage of top arm IGBTs is dropped. And then the loss of IC increases. Vcp must not become Vcp<10V. Capacitor • Vcp is dropped by the internal dissipation current from C+ terminal of IC, when capacity is small. • The voltage impressed to the capacitor becomes VCC in operation. Therefore, the withstand voltage of the capacitor is necessary more than the VCC voltage. Diode • Forward voltage (VF) recommends the small one as much as possible. Because of, Vcp is dropped when VF is large. • Reverse recovery time (trr) recommends the small one as much as possible. Because of, Reverse recovery charge (Qrr) becomes large at charge pump operation when trr is large. And then, VCP is drop. • The withstand voltage of the diode is needed more than the VS voltage because CL is changed from about 0V to VS. • The rush current flows to diode D1 and D2 by charging with capacitor C1 and C2 when the VCC power supply is turned on by VS=0V. Please select the ratings current of the diode in consideration of this current. Note 4: When the VB supply is used for the power supply of Hall ICs, please select Hall IC in consideration of VB output current. The VB output current must be less than 25mA. (2) Other external parts • Parts of Table 5-9 are recommended to be arranged to protect stabilization and IC of the power supply from the voltage serge. • Please adjust the part setting according to usage conditions. And also, please set up each part close to the terminal of IC to achieve the effect of the voltage serge absorption. Table 5-9 Parts Purpose Remarks Cvcc1 for High frequency noise suppressing Ceramic capacitor with good frequency response etc. Cvcc2 for Vcc power supply smoothing Electrolytic capacitor etc. ZDvcc for Over voltage suppressing Zener diode with good frequency response etc. Cvs1 for High frequency noise suppressing Ceramic capacitor with good frequency response etc. Cvs2 for Vs power supply smoothing Electrolytic capacitor etc. ZDvs for Over voltage suppressing Zener diode with good frequency response etc. - 28 -

IC-SP-06027 R1 6. Handling Instruction 6-1. Mounting (1) Insulation between pins • High voltages are applied between the pins of the numbers specified below. Hitachi advises to apply coating or molding treatment. 1 - 2, 2 - 4, 6 - 7, 8 - 9, 9 - 10, 20 -21, 21- 22, 22 -23 • Coating resin comes in various types. There are some unclear points as to how much thermal and mechanical stresses are exercised on semiconductor devices by size, thickness, and other factors of board shape, and the effects of other components. In selecting coating resin, please consult with your manufacturer. (2) Connection of tabs (radiator panels of the ICs) • Fig. 6-1 is a cross section of the IC. The tab and the GL pin of the IC are connected with high impedance (Rp = hundreds of KΩ to several MΩ). • Set the tab potential to open or GND. • If the tab is mounted on the external cabinet of the motor for heat radiation purpose, the IC cannot withstand an isolation withstand voltage test where a high voltage is applied between the external cabinet and the ground. Please apply a mylar sheet or something similar between the IC tab and the external cabinet. (SiO2) To GL pin Aluminum wire Isolation layer N P N N Rp Substrate To tab Fig. 6-1. Cross section of Hitachi HVIC (3) Soldering conditions • The peak temperature of flow soldering* must be less than 260oC, and the dip time must be less than 10 seconds. High stress by mounting, such as long time thermal stress by preheating, mechanical stress, etc, can lead to degradation or destruction. Make sure that your mounting method does not cause problem as a system. * Flow soldering: Only pins enter a solder bath, while the resin or tab does not. - 29 -

IC-SP-06027 R1 6-2. Antistatic measures • Containers and jigs for transporting ICs should be designed not to get charged under vibration or other impact during transportation. One effective measure is to use a conductive container or aluminum foil. • Ground all work benches, machines and devices, meters, and other units that may get in contact with the ICs. • While handling an IC, ground your body with a high resistor (about 100kΩ to 1MΩ) to prevent breakdown due to static electricity that has charged your body and/or clothes. • Do not produce any friction with other polymer compounds. • To move any printed circuit board or other component equipped with an IC, make sure that no vibration or friction occurs and short-circuit the pins to keep the potential at the same level. • Exercise control so that the humidity does not go too low. • Take enough care in handling to prevent the breakdown of ICs due to static electricity. 7. Quality 7-1. Quality tests • Table 7-1 shows the main quality tests performed by our company. Table 7-1 No. Test item Test conditions 1 High temperature operation VCC=VCCop, VS=Vsop, Tj=135oC, t=1000h 2 Motor rotation continuousness operation VCC=VCCop, VS=Vsop, Tj=135oC, t=1000h 3 High temperature storage Ta= 150oC, t=1000h 4 Low temperature storage Ta= -40oC, t=1000h 5 Temperature cycle -65oC to room temperature, 150oC, 100cycles (30min, 5min, 30min) - 30 -

IC-SP-06027 R1 7-2. Quality Control Flow Process Process Classinfication Control Method Control Item Remarks Flow No. Process name Contents Sampling Sillicon Wafer incoming Resistivity 1 1 Wefer receive insupection Sampling [Process symbols] inspection Thickness : Incoming 2 2 DI (dielectric isolation) DI condition Appearance Size All : Inspection : Processing or Photo lithography machining 3 3 Photo lithography Pattern Form Sampling condition Resistivity Gate 4 4 Diffusion Diffusion condition Sampling oxidation thickness Metal evaporation Thickness 5 5 Metal evaporation Sampling condition Appearance Surface protection film Surface protection film Thickness 6 6 Sampling deposition deposition condition Appearance Wafer thickness 7 7 Back grinding Grinding condition Sampling Appearance Metal evaporation Thickness 8 8 Back metal evaporation Sampling condition Appearance Electrical 9 9 Wafer Probing Electrical characteristic All characteristic Assembling parts Assembling parts receive 10 10 Appearance Size Sampling incoming inspection inspection 11 11 Dicing Dicing condition Appearance Sampling 12 12 Pellet appearance check Appearance Appearance Sampling 13 13 Die bonding Bonding condition Appearance Sampling 14 14 Joining Joining condition Appearance Sampling 15 15 Wire bonding Wire bonding condition Appearance Sampling 16 16 Molding Molding condition Appearance Sampling 17 17 Lead plating Lead plating condition Appearance Sampling Marking Marking condition 18 18 Appearance Sampling Cutting bending Appearance Assembly final 19 19 Appearance Appearance Sampling appearance check Characteristic Characteristic 20 20 Screening All Appearance Appearance Characteristic Characteristic 21 21 Final check Sampling Appearance Appearance Size Type The number 22 22 Store Checking Sampling Inventory code Type The number 23 23 Shipping inspection Checking Sampling Inventory code 24 Packing・ Shipping Shipping guide - - - 31 -

IC-SP-06027 R1 8. Inverter IC Handling Note 8-1. Electrical static destruction of VSP pin caused by external surge Cause The external surge on the VSP line of the motor was put into IC directly. Phenomenon The VSP signal is not transmitted in IC, and the motor doesn't rotate. Countermeasure The series resistance is inserted so that the external surge is not put into IC directly. In addition, if capacitor is added, it becomes more effective. <Pin name of Motor> VSP pin Inverter IC VSP GL pin GND <Motor populated board> Fig. 8-1. Example to configuration for external parts of VSP 8-2. Electrical static destruction of FG pin caused by external surge Cause The external surge on the FG line of the motor was put into IC directly. Phenomenon The FG signal of the IC is not monitored. Countermeasure The buffer circuit using the transistor is used on the motor populated board so that the external surge is not put into IC directly. <Terminal name of Motor> CB pin FG FG pin Inverter IC GL pin GND <Motor populated board> Fig. 8-2. Example to configuration for external parts of FG (CMOS output case) - 32 -

IC-SP-06027 R1 8-3. IC destruction by external surge inputted to VS and VCC line (1) Cause The external surge on the VS and VCC line of the motor was put into IC. Because the Zener voltage of the surge suppressor diode was higher than the maximum rating voltage of IC, it did not protect IC. Phenomenon The motor doesn't rotate by the over voltage destruction of IC. Countermeasure Use the surge suppressor diode of the Zener voltage, which is lower than the maximum rating voltage of IC. 8-4. IC destruction by external surge inputted to VS and VCC line (2) Cause The external surge on the VS and VCC line of the motor was put into IC. Because the capacity of bypass capacitor for surge suppression was small, surge was not able to be suppressed enough. Phenomenon The motor doesn't rotate by the over voltage destruction of IC. Countermeasure Use the bypass capacitor for surge suppression, which capacity should be enough to suppress surge. Small capacity case Large capacity case Fig. 8-3. Example to surge waveform by difference of capacity of bypass capacitor 8-5. IC destruction by external surge inputted to VS and VCC line (3) Cause The external surge on the VS and VCC line of the motor was put into IC. Because the position of external parts for surge suppression on the motor populated board was bad, surge was not able to be suppressed enough. Phenomenon The motor doesn't rotate by the over voltage destruction of IC. Countermeasure Bypass capacitor and Zener diode for surge suppression should be mounted close to IC. Far from IC Close to IC Fig. 8-4. Example to surge waveform by difference of the location on the board of bypass capacitor - 33 -

IC-SP-06027 R1 8-6. IC destruction by line noise put into VCC (1) Cause Pulsed noise of a voltage that is lower than LVSD level was put into VCC line of IC. In this case, IC repeats split-second LVSD operation. Then, IC will have the possibility of causing the overheating destruction. Phenomenon The motor doesn't rotate by the overheating destruction of IC. Countermeasure (1) The noise that is put into motor Vcc line is removed by reviewing the power supply circuit(inductance and so on of power cable). (2) Suppress the noise by mounting the capacitor of enough capacity between Vcc and GND pin of IC. That capacitor should be mounted close to Vcc-GND pin of IC. Noise pulse width: TL Vcc voltage level : Vcc Detect voltage of LVSD: LVSDON Noise level : VccL Vcc = 15V VccL ≦ 10V TL ≅ 2μs Fig. 8-5. Example to pulsed noise on Vcc at IC destruction 8-7. IC destruction by line noise put into VCC (2) Cause The surge voltage that exceeds the maximum ratings of IC that was put into VCC pin of IC. Phenomenon The motor doesn't rotate by the over voltage destruction of IC. Countermeasure (1) Mount a bypass capacitor C1 close to pin of IC. It's effective to use a capacitor that has excellent frequency characteristics, such as a ceramic capacitor, as a bypass capacitor. As a guide, ones of around 1μF are recommended (The larger the capacity, the more effective it is.). (2) It is more effective to mount a surge suppression device such as bypass capacitor C2 close to connector of motor populated board like figure 8-6. Motor populated board Connector Motor Power supply cable IC Vcc VCC pin V C2 C1 Bypass Capacitor PCB Fig. 8-6. Example to mount surge suppression devices - 34 -

IC-SP-06027 R1 8-8. IC destruction by relay noise of inspection machine Cause A mechanical relay for On-off control of electric connection between IC and inspection machine was used. Surge was generated when it was on-off, and it was put into IC. Phenomenon The motor doesn't rotate by the over voltage destruction of IC. Countermeasure Use the wet relay (mercury relay etc.). Confirm surge is not generated when the relay is on-off. Fig. 8-7 Example to surge waveform when mechanical relay is used 8-9. Motor failure (missing phase output) Cause The motor has missing phase output that was shipped to the set maker. Phenomenon The motor might start depend on the position of the rotor when starting even if the motor has missing phase output. Therefore, the missing phase output of motor cannot be detected by the motor rotation test. Countermeasure Monitor the Motor current or the torque pulsation in order to detect the missing phase output of motor. Normal missing phase output Fig. 8-8 Example to Motor current waveform of the motor that has missing phase output - 35 -